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CentOS上部署Django

2017-09-27/# Django

搭建Python环境

一般云服务(如阿里云)的CentOS系统默认的Python版本较低,还停留在2.6。如果是这样,首先需要搭建较高版本的Python环境。具体可以参见翻译的博文在CentOS 6.4上设置Python2.7.6和3.3.3环境

依次执行以下命令:

yum install -y update # 更新内置程序 yum groupinstall -y development # 安装所需的development tools yum install -y zlib-devel openssl-devel sqlite-devel bzip2-devel # 安装附加包 yum install xz-libs # 安装XZ解压库(可选) wget http://www.python.org/ftp/python/2.7.6/Python-2.7.6.tar.xz # 下载源码包 # 解压源码包,分为两步 xz -d Python-2.7.6.tar.xz tar -xvf Python-2.7.6.tar # 编译与安装,先进入源码目录 cd Python-2.7.6 ./configure --prefix=/usr/local make make altinstall # 配置virtualenv虚拟环境 wget --no-check-certificate https://pypi.python.org/packages/source/s/setuptools/setuptools-1.4.2.tar.gz tar -xvf setuptools-1.4.2.tar.gz cd setuptools-1.4.2 python2.7 setup.py install curl https://raw.githubusercontent.com/pypa/pip/master/contrib/get-pip.py | python2.7 - pip install virtualenv # 创建项目所需的虚拟环境venv virtualenv venv --python=`which python2.7` # 修改.bashrc,在该系统用户登录之后自动激活虚拟环境。 # 在.bashrc下增加以下命令 source ~/venv/bin/activate

安装数据库MySQL

使用yum源直接安装的版本较低,一般需要安装较高版本(5.5及以上)。

# 添加yum源 ## Remi Dependency on CentOS 5 and Red Hat (RHEL) 5 ## rpm -Uvh http://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/5/i386/epel-release-5-4.noarch.rpm ## CentOS 5 and Red Hat (RHEL) 5 ## rpm -Uvh http://rpms.famillecollet.com/enterprise/remi-release-5.rpm rpm -Uvh http://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/6/i386/epel-release-6-8.noarch.rpm rpm -Uvh http://rpms.famillecollet.com/enterprise/remi-release-6.rpm # 检查可用的MySQL版本 yum --enablerepo=remi,remi-test list mysql mysql-devel mysql-server # 安装MySQL yum --enablerepo=remi,remi-test install mysql mysql-server # 修改/etc/my.conf,修改或者添加以下配置,支持unicode全字符(即支持emoji) [client] default-character-set = utf8mb4 [mysqld] character-set-server = utf8mb4 collation-server = utf8mb4_unicode_ci default-storage-engine = INNODB # 启动MySQL service mysqld start # 检查配置是否正确 mysql -u root -p # 回车,不需要输入密码,此时还未设置root密码 mysql> SHOW VARIABLES WHERE Variable_name LIKE 'character\_set\_%' OR Variable_name LIKE 'collation%'; # 如果看到以下结果说明配置正确 +--------------------------+--------------------+ | Variable_name | Value | +--------------------------+--------------------+ | character_set_client | utf8mb4 | | character_set_connection | utf8mb4 | | character_set_database | utf8mb4 | | character_set_filesystem | binary | | character_set_results | utf8mb4 | | character_set_server | utf8mb4 | | character_set_system | utf8 | | collation_connection | utf8mb4_general_ci | | collation_database | utf8mb4_unicode_ci | | collation_server | utf8mb4_unicode_ci | +--------------------------+--------------------+ # 查看用户信息 mysql> SELECT user,host,password FROM mysql.user; +------+--------------+----------+ | user | host | password | +------+--------------+----------+ | root | localhost | | | root | iz2853tmsqfz | | | root | 127.0.0.1 | | | | localhost | | | | iz2853tmsqfz | | +------+--------------+----------+ # 设置root用户密码 mysqladmin -u root password 'password' # 使用root用户登录后创建新用户 mysql> CREATE USER 'demouser'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'demopassword'; # 授权 mysql> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON demodb.* to demouser@localhost; mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES; # 使用新创建的用户登录后创建数据库 mysql> CREATE DATABASE demodb;

拉取项目代码并安装所需包

# 安装数据库MySQL yum install mysql # 拉取项目代码(示例使用git),假设项目名为proj git clone 代码库地址 # 安装requirements.txt中所有的包 pip install -r requirements.txt

注意 如果出现以下错误:

_mysql.c:2654: error: '_mysql_ResultObject' has no member named 'converter' _mysql.c:2654: error: initializer element is not constant _mysql.c:2654: error: (near initialization for '_mysql_ResultObject_memberlist[0].offset') _mysql.c:2661: error: '_mysql_ResultObject' has no member named 'has_next' _mysql.c:2661: error: initializer element is not constant _mysql.c:2661: error: (near initialization for '_mysql_ResultObject_memberlist[1].offset') _mysql.c: In function '_mysql_ConnectionObject_getattro': _mysql.c:2680: error: '_mysql_ConnectionObject' has no member named 'open' error: command 'gcc' failed with exit status 1

一般上述错误可以使用yum install mysql-devel 解决,但是由于这里添加了源来安装MySQL,所以版本会不正确,出现以下错误:

Error: Package: mysql-devel-5.1.73-7.el6.x86_64 (base) Requires: mysql = 5.1.73-7.el6 Installed: mysql-5.5.52-1.el6.remi.x86_64 (@remi) mysql = 5.5.52-1.el6.remi Available: mysql-5.1.73-7.el6.x86_64 (base) mysql = 5.1.73-7.el6 You could try using --skip-broken to work around the problem You could try running: rpm -Va --nofiles --nodigest

解决方法:

yum --enablerepo=remi,remi-test install mysql-devel

配置gunicorn

# gunicorn_start.sh #!/bin/bash NAME="demo" DJANGODIR=/path/to/your/project/ SOCKFILE=/tmp/gunicorn.sock USER=user GROUP=group NUM_WORKERS=2 DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE=demo.settings DJNAGO_WSGI_MODULE=demo.wsgi cd $DJANGODIR source /path/to/your/venv/bin/activate export DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE=$DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE export PYTHONPATH=$DJANGODIR:$PYTHONPATH exec /path/to/your/venv/bin/gunicorn demo.wsgi:application \ --name $NAME \ --workers $NUM_WORKERS \ --bind=unix:$SOCKFILE \ --log-level=debug \ --log-file=/path/to/logs/bootcamp_gunicorn.log

配置supervisor

pip install supervisor echo_supervisord_conf > /path/to/conf/supervisord.conf # 将以下配置加入supervisord.conf中 [program:demo] command = sh /path/to/gunicorn_start.sh user = user stdout_logfile = /path/to/logs/gunicorn_supervisor.log redirect_stderr = true environment=LANG=en_US.UTF-8,LC_ALL=en_US.UTF-8 # 启动supervisord supervisord -c /path/to/supervisord.conf # 重新加载配置 supervisorctl -c /path/to/supervisord.conf reload # 重启程序 supervisorctl -c /path/to/supervisord.conf restat demo # 查看程序运行状态 supervisorctl -c /path/to/supervisord.conf status demo

配置Nginx

# 安装Nginx yum install nginx # /etc/nginx/conf.d/demo.conf文件中写入以下配置 upstream demo_server { server unix:/path/to/gunicorn.sock fail_timeout=0; } server { listen 8888; server_name example.com; access_log /path/to/logs/nginx/access.log; error_log /path/to/logs/nginx/error.log; location /static/ { root /path/to/demo; } location / { proxy_redirect off; proxy_set_header Host $host; proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr; proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for; client_max_body_size 10m; if (!-f $request_filename) { proxy_pass http://demo_server; break; } } } # 启动/重启Nginx /etc/init.d/nginx start|restart # reload 配置 /etc/init.d/nginx reload

数据表创建与静态文件处理

# 创建数据库 mysql> create database demo; # migrate python manage.py migrate # collectstatic python manage.py collectstatic